We’re halfway through the semester at my wonderful, small liberal arts college. As my survey classes are almost ALWAYS filled with non-majors, I’m always trying to find new ways to engage my students in active learning exercises that they’ll enjoy. This week, we’re focusing on the Market Revolution (through the American Yawp: Chapter 8). I was flummoxed for how I might cover so many minute details, while still conveying the big picture.
So I decided, after showing them the CrashCourse video, that I’d let them do a little Choose-Your-Own-Adventure assignment. I allowed them to group up into small groups of 3 and gave the class a list of suggestions (including, but not limited to):
Write a skit
Create a series of political cartoons/comic strips
Write a short story
Create a Concept Map
Create an interactive historical timeline
Write a text message dialogue between two (or more) characters
Write a series of poems
Make a crossword puzzle (including the clues!)
Create a digital collage with both historical AND modern images
Create a soundtrack
Write some historical newspaper articles
They had to take the larger themes/concepts from the chapter and present them through their medium in a convincing way. In the first section, I had 3 groups choose to create crossword puzzles and 3 groups choose to create a soundtrack.
First, the Market Revolution soundtrack, Vol. 1
The Spotify Link for your listening pleasure (a few songs are not on Spotify).
The Market Revolution: A Soundtrack, Vol. 1
Smokey Factory Blues
In the Highway
Mother Maybelle Carter
9 to 5
Run the World
She Works Hard for the Money
I’ve Been Working on the Railroad
Takin’ Care of Business
Bachman Turner Overdrive
Money (That’s What I Want)
Berry Gordy & Janie Bradford
Travis Scott, Quavo
Creedence Clearwater Revival
2 Chainz, Gucci Mane, Quavo
Working on the Highway
Pick it Up
How to be a Millionaire
Working Man Blues
Hall of Fame
Workin’ for a Livin’
Huey Lewis & the News
Steamboat Willie Whistle
I Will Survive
Blue Water Highway Band
Should I Stay or Should I Go
Just a Girl
Snow White-Dwarf Chorus
Work Hard, Play Hard
Don’t Stop Believing
Swing Low Sweet Chariot
We’re All in this Together
High School Musical
We’re Not Gonna Take It
A Hard Day’s Night
Kids in America
New York, New York
Working Day and Night
2 Chainz & Drake
I Need a Dollar
The Star Spangled Banner
Francis Scott Key
The Looking Glass
I was impressed with their creativity. And they’re ready to discuss next class WHY they chose the songs that they did.
Market Revolution Crossword Puzzles
For the crossword puzzles, boy were some of them challenging! Here’s some screen shots of 2 of them:
UPDATE: Now with My Second Section!
It was a ton of fun comparing the soundtracks of both sections. There was, as I expected, quite a bit of overlap. But there were also some interesting points of divergence. In this section, I had 4 groups choose the soundtrack option. The last 2 groups chose to create crossword puzzles.
The Market Revolution: A Soundtrack, Vol. 2
One of the students created an awesome piece of artwork for the class soundtrack. That group dubbed the soundtrack: Dance, Dance Market Revolution. Here’s the other Spotify Link for you!
Queen of the Field
I’m a Slave 4 U
Don’t Stop Believing
I Need a Dollar
Cotton Eyed Joe
The Chieftains, Ricky Skaggs
Beyoncé & Kendrick Lamar
Work from Home
B**ch Better Have My Money (BBHMM)
Old McDonald Had a Farm
Started from the Bottom
Seize the Day
Broadway show “The Newsies”
Working Class Hero
She Works Hard for the Money
U Can’t Touch This
Babies in the Mill
Larry Penn, Darryl Holter
Take this Job and Shove It
Run the World
Ain’t Your Mama
Another Brick in the Wall
Morning Train (9 to 5)
And the Beat Goes On
I Will Survive
This is America
When I Grow Up
Takin’ Care of Business
Telegraph Your Love
The Pointer Sisters
Work Hard, Play Hard
With God on our Side
I’ve Been Working on the Railroad
Alvin & the Chipmunks
Keep Your Head Up
Dwarf Chorus (Snow White)
Empire State of Mind
Jay-Z, Alicia Keys
Let’s Go to the Market
Rock the Boat
I’m on a Boat
The Lonely Island ft. T-Pain
Pursuit of Happiness
Life is a Highway
Come Sail Away
School House Rock
Working Day and Night
Country Roads (Take Me Home)
Train Kept A-Rollin’
Don’t Judge Me
9 to 5
Party in the USA
More Market Revolution Crosswords!
I gave the students the entire class to work on these. This was after we’d watched the video and had an introduction. The next class will consist of discussion of the assignment and a bit of lecture/Q&A. Let me know what you think of the in-class assignment. How might you implement it into your own classroom?
This post about my TEDx experience originally appeared on my guest blog for the British Naval History website.
A few months ago a call came across our university Portal asking for TEDx speakers. For those unfamiliar, TEDx is a way for local, independent organizers to host TED style events. The students, faculty, and staff who organized the TEDx: Stevenson University event chose “Embracing Change” as the theme. Initially, I was hesitant to submit a talk proposal. Sure, I’d given countless conference talks over the last decade. But this was different. The only guidance was the theme. We could talk about ANYTHING that could be construed as “embracing change.” What could I possibly say that would be of any relevance? But I also couldn’t pass up the opportunity. So I decided to throw my proverbial hat into the ring. What follows is a mix of information from my talk and a reflection of my experiences.
When people learn what I do, they assume that I’ve always wanted to be an educator. But the reality is a little more complicated and, I think, important to the development of my own pedagogical methods. The idea of “embracing change” seems to be something like a mantra for my entire life. I grew up in an extremely lower “middle class” blue-collar family. Neither of my parents had the opportunity to attend college. In fact, my father had to drop out of high school before graduating in order to help care for his mother and later went back for a GED while in the Navy. We settled in the piedmont region of North Carolina when I was about 8 years old and from that point forward I attended relatively small public schools for K-12.
Although many in my high school had plans for college, it was in no-way a foregone conclusion that all of us would go to college. Knowing my parents’ dire financial situation, college seemed impossible. But my mom managed to squirrel away $50 for me to send in one college application. So it was all or nothing for me. Just a few short months later I was accepted to Appalachian State University in the mountains of North Carolina: requiring a $300 deposit to secure my spot to be paid within 2 weeks.
Would I make it to College?
I sat in my AP English class during the lunch break and cried. My mom had barely been able to scrape together the $50 to apply. How could we possibly come up with $300 in just 2 weeks? My AP English teacher happened to find me mid-tears and asked me to fill him in on the details. Three days later, I received confirmation that my deposit had been paid. It came with information on summer orientation sessions and dorm assignments. I asked my mom how she did it and she simply said “I didn’t.”
Now, I don’t know if I’ve altered this memory in some way. But in my mind, I am confident my AP English teacher found a way to cover my deposit. Or my mom lied so I wouldn’t feel bad. Either way, it was to be the first time in my now-adult life that I would be forced to embrace change: I would soon become a first generation college student.
Me: The College Years
Now, if you’re thinking that I immediately decided to be a teacher in that moment due the actions of my AP English teacher, I’m sorry to disappoint. I had no idea what I wanted to do. My dreams of becoming a medical doctor had been thwarted by an unkind counselor and I didn’t know what my passion was. College was a new experience. I was no longer necessarily the “smartest” kid in class. I had to learn how to study and manage my time. And I had to do it all myself. There didn’t seem to be many obvious & readily available resources for someone like me. Someone who didn’t come from a background of family members who went to college.
First, I earned my B.A. in Archaeology. But 3 herniated discs in my back during the required dig made it clear I had no future in the laborious field of Archaeology.
My next step was to earn an M.A. in Public History, which I thought would marry my love of archaeology and history with a field that was less physically demanding. But after a snoozefest of an 8 week internship, I realized that, too, wasn’t my calling. So as I talked out my frustrations with one of my professors, she asked me what my favorite thing about working on my M.A. was.
On to the PhD!
It was in this moment, nearly 5 years after that fateful day in high school that it clicked: my favorite part had been working as a T.A., developing assignments, and helping the undergraduate students. So with the advice of several other professors and roughly 8 rejections later, I found myself on my way to The Ohio State University. This would be another major chance for embracing change. I’d never lived anywhere but the East Coast before. And no one I knew (aside from my professors) had ever earned a PhD. Somehow I had managed to navigate the difficult world of the B.A. and the M.A. But the PhD was filled with acronyms and phrases and language I had never heard before.
Changes in Academia
It was during my time at OSU that I learned a lot about the changing field of higher education. This was most often in the form of laments about what was wrong with those changes. So I began to develop an evolving pedagogy that, in my mind, would embrace those changes. All through the PhD process I heard about how I’d never land an academic job because there simply weren’t any. I was told that online education was bunk. Many told me that technology was ruining the classroom and that students just didn’t care about education anymore. And for a long time I bought into those grievances because they came from scholars and mentors whose opinions I respected.
And who was I, a lowly PhD student, to question them? Their lamentations and fears seemed supported by the latest musings. Stuart Butler of the Brookings Institute, a highly respected thinktank, argued in 2013 that traditional college models should give way to “contractor models,” in which the “core business function of the contractor-college would be assembly and quality control rather than running an institution and hiring faculty or holding classes.” Basically, the college would customize a package of courses and educational experiences from many suppliers.
Similarly, Dr. Alex Hope suggested that “the ‘academic’ of the future will not be tied to an institution, but be a thought leader, communicator, and teacher undertaking a range of activities on a freelance/contract basis-and that the world would be a better place for it…” Many colleges have taken advantage of the model Dr. Hope recommended, leading to our current adjunct crisis. And as far as pedagogy, several colleges, like George Washington University and the College of William & Mary, and countless professors took to banning technology from their classrooms arguing that laptops and phones have become powerful distractions, calling students “tech addicts.”
My Current Pedagogy: Digitally-based Assignments
Rather than focus on what is or isn’t changing, I used the TEDx talk to offer just one example of a way that we can “embrace change” in the classroom pedagogically: digital assignments & literacy. This is not to say embracing change for the sake of change. Rather I tried to demonstrate how we might marry traditional modes—like exams and lectures—with innovative course/assignment designs that take advantage of tech in the classroom.
Most recently, Cathy N. Davidson, distinguished professor and founding director of the Futures Initiative at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, argued that we must recognize that educational structures should meet the needs of the time, to “train active learners who don’t just fit into the status quo, they challenge it.” Although my examples represent my field—history/humanities—I firmly believe that those in other fields can implement assignments in their own way.
My pedagogy has been, and is, shaped by both my own background, educational experiences, and the ever-evolving backgrounds/needs of the student population. My educational philosophy is grounded in four important principles that I believe create an active and involved classroom environment: passion, creativity, independence, and clarity. I’ve been able to create digitally-based assignments and incorporate digital/visual elements—such as music videos, historical reenactments, or comedic sketches—into my classrooms to help foster those principles. I’ve found that it has helped students understand that A. history doesn’t have to be a boring, rote memorization of names, dates, and places and B. that they can incorporate many of the skills they learn in my classroom—digital or not—into their daily lives and future careers.
Digitally-Based Assignments: A Learning Process
I think one of the ways that digitally-based assignments have not always been as successful and impactful as they could be is the result of the “digital native” myth, which Stevenson English Professor, Dr. Amanda Licastro, discusses in her recent open-access publication on the problem of multimodality. Assuming that students have certain digital literacy skills due to growing up with this technology at their fingertips undermines students’ ability to successfully complete many digitally-based assignments. Even I’ve had to learn the digital world. One example Dr. Licastro discusses in her case studies is the use of multimedia, folksonomic elements—or tags/categories—and commenting in digital writing, such as blog posts, Learning Management System (LMS) assignments, Tweets, etc.
By scaffolding “digital literacy practices into assignments with careful attention to the rhetoric they use and intentional instruction” and developing these skills in the academic environment suggests Dr. Licastro, instructors may cultivate active digital citizens and more successful digitally-based assignments. This is still a learning process for myself and I’ve learned that I have to be specific and teach the students how to use the elements I want them to use. I just wanted to share a few of digital assignment examples from my recent classes that help harness students’ dependence on social media in a way that can be not only academically productive, but develop digital skills that employers desire from recent graduates.
Digitally-Based Assignments: Some Examples from my Classroom
These examples demonstrate how, despite being digitally-aware, students demonstrated varying proficiency with the Twitter platform. The only directive I gave starting out was to create a handle specific to their “persona” and to use a hashtag I created for use with that specific class. As you can see, some students were better about incorporating other folksonomic and multimedia elements than others. I’ve learned that I have to begin creating more “rules” for the assignment and teach them how to use the platform, rather than assume they know how to do so; especially how to make a succinct point in 140 characters or less.
By allowing my students a bit of creativity and flexibility, I was turned on to a new tech platform that is great for my field: Tripline. Students are able to create digital “roadtrips” showcasing important historical landmarks along the way. It allows me to incorporate basic map-usage, digital writing, and multimedia skills into a single assignment. It also forces the student to think constructively about the point they are trying to get across.
PowerPoint is not a new tool, but I’ve found that students often have very minimal skills when using the software. Aside from choosing a pre-made layout, students often incorporate too much text, too few visuals, and little-to-no animations. This is a demonstrable way for me to marry the traditional PowerPoint with new modes of thinking. In my assignment, I require them to design their slides as if they were Museum Exhibit panels. It forces them to think more specifically about the layout, text-to-visual ratios, and “visitor” attention spans.
Blogging is another tool that isn’t as “new” as others, but offers another way to teach digital literacy in the classroom. I’ve found that students often have difficulty navigating new platforms (ex. WordPress vs. Tumblr). They also use tags, categories, and multimedia elements with varying proficiency. It’s another assignment that I’ve had to be more explicit in my expectations. This helps students to understand how and why to use folksonomic and multimedia elements. They seem to understand “tags” in a loose sense for things like Instagram (as a way to drive traffic). But students aren’t always able to transfer that skill to other modes of digital writing.
Tiki-Toki: Interactive Timelines
Timelines are a pretty traditional and standard way of laying out information across time/space. Tiki-Toki and similar platforms allow students to translate the traditional skill of linear-thinking with critical thinking, examining not just when, but why, events have occurred. Not only do students lay events out on a timeline, but they provide categories for those events in a variety of ways (in this example: sources vs. structural elements) and incorporate multimedia elements to support their historical research.
I was the last person to speak during the day-long event. But I was pleasantly surprised at the number of people who stuck around to hear me talk. The variety of topics within the theme of “Embracing Change” made for a wonderful experience. And there was a great mix of students, faculty, and staff who gave presentations. Each one was unique. Many were deeply personal and heartwrenching. Although mine was pedagogically focused, I hope many found it useful. As far as conclusions about my digitally-based assignments, it’s a learning process.
Don’t assume tech is useless or too complicated. Much like any other skill, students will have varying proficiency. Think about scaffolding assignments. This allows you to incorporate specific skills you want students to achieve or specific target goals (like X number of multimedia elements). Routinely incorporate digital technologies into the classroom/syllabus so that it becomes a natural extension of your pedagogy. Harness students’ reliance on digital devices and social media usage. Let digitally-based assignments serve as teachable moments regarding digital presence.
The Live-Stream Video
Below is the live-stream video from the second half of the event. I start at 1:25:25, but please feel free to listen to the other speakers!
This post originally appeared on our class blog for Hist 209: Research and Writing in History. I pondered for a long time how best to model a blog post to my Hist 209 01 students. I decided that demonstrating what some of my research was like in my early PhD years could be useful. It would also offer them just one example of how public AND academic historians can utilize blogging. There are no shortage of amazing public/history related blogs out there. Great examples include the National Council on Public History (NCPH) blog, “History@Work,” the Junto Blog of early American history, and Pamela Toler’s blog “History in the Margins.”
As digital skills are increasingly necessary in many of today’s fields, our public history students need to understand the fundamentals of digital public history. This includes blogging. Posts need to be readable. They need to be engaging. And they need to contain a multitude of elements, like subheadings, multimedia, links, and folksonomic elements (i.e. tagging). According to Thomas Cauvin in Public History: A Textbook of Practice, “digital tools are transforming the work of historians…” (pg. 174) Not only are being digitized, but scholars can reach wider audiences through digital publication. And public history venues can exhibit vastly more than physical displays can hold.
Blogging, in particular, can be a great way to crowdsource and engage the public with various projects. For example, MarineLives.org has crowdsourced the transcription and translation of many archival documents like UK High Court of Admiralty records and Probate records. This makes such documents easily accessible to the public. This is not only for those who cannot visit the archives physically, but also for those who have difficulty deciphering the handwriting. And the Preserve the Baltimore Uprising Archival Project enables the community to contribute and shape the narrative of protest and unrest in Baltimore. What follows, then, is an example for my students about how they can blog effectively to engage their audience.
I learned a lot of valuable information during each of these trips. Some of it was related to my work, some of it was learning about how to be a better research. There is no better method to becoming a better researcher than to physically enter an archive and get your hands on the records. During my first major research trip, in England, one valuable lesson I learned was to double-check the archive’s operating hours before making the mile-long walk in frigid January temperatures. I woke up bright and early that Monday morning, excited to dive head-first into my research. Turns out that the National Archives in Kew are closed on Mondays.
I also learned that you should make sure your camera is fully-charged. And that you remembered to buy/bring a memory card. There are few feelings worse than showing up ready to get through some volumes only to realize you have a dead camera on your hands. Needless to say, I’m glad I had 8 weeks in England because I made a ton of mistakes in the first 2 weeks. And I still have a lot to learn when it comes to being a good researcher.
Research is a Process
Below is a list of just a few tips and tricks you might utilize as you venture into the world of research: [This list is my own, with tips adapted from William Cronon and Richard Marius]
ask good questions
identify your audience
imagine your ideal sources
determine what sources you can realistically access
keep an open mind (don’t limit your searches to narrow keywords or phrases)
question your sources
take notes (and make them thorough so you can refer back without forgetting why you made that note)
avoid confirmation bias
mine bibliographies to check out their sources
don’t rely solely on digitally available sources (there might be transcription/translation errors, for example)
ask for help
develop new questions based on your sources
seek scholarly secondary sources (i.e. monographs via reputable publishers and peer-reviewed journal articles; general websites, encyclopedias, etc. are not usually considered “scholarly”)
Examples from the Archives
What follows are some examples from my time in the archives researching piracy, smuggling, and illicit trade in the early modern Caribbean-Atlantic. Some of the documents I found were relevant to my research. But many were not. And some of them were downright amusing. Whether the sources were relevant to my work or not, each document contributed to my overall experience. You’ll see that I don’t have the volumes listed below. That’s because these were taken with my cell phone. I photographed all of my true archival work with a Nikon point-and-shoot camera and noted in a research journal. Again, many rookie mistakes.
Initially I thought that this document would be immensely helpful. It listed a number of prizes brought into the local admiralty. While it was useful, several pages were missing, which made it difficult to properly contextualize.
Although relatively difficult to read, this is some of the better handwriting I encountered. According to this deposition in 1719, “…and after all the said Pirates were all gon[sic] out of the said River, he the Informant understood that the Inhabitants on Shoar had received several parcels of goods from the said Pirates…”
Sometimes prize vessels just weren’t worth it… In 1796 a treasury record states that “…the Yellow Fever was brought to Bermudas in a Prize vessel by which upwards of two hundred of the Inhabitants had fallen victims…”
These were the best records to come across. I got an idea of what went unrecorded in illicit activities by seeing what was recovered.
Some repercussions of the American Revolution. #SorryFrance
I found this 1614 admiralty deposition while in the Netherlands. My Dutch reading skills were not up to par for that trip, BUT, I did find some useful items.
Being governor of Virginia in the mid-17th century must have been quite a chore. Here, a deposition says that Berkeley was “abused and Called Pittiful, ffollow Puppy, and Sonn of a Whore...” Nothing worse than being called a follow puppy I suppose.
This came from my time in the Bermuda Archives. 3000 pounds sterling for “scandall and defamation.” Ouch.
Some men finding themselves unemployed and in distress; but they “helped themselves by unsavoury bitches…”
In 1796, a resident of Bermuda reportedly “…had lately spoken very disrespectfully of me in the Billiard Room…he has said that the Governor was a ‘damned Republican Rascal’...” A warrant was issued and he was punished.
A 1775 map detail of the Mississippi River by Nathaniel Lindegreen.
An 18th century coded document I found in the State Papers volumes. I didn’t have time to find the cypher to decode the letter.
Apparently in 1660s Jamaica, Governor Edward D’Oyley banned people from carrying a “stick of fire” or a “pipe of tobacco lighted” through a field of canes in Jamaica.