Hist 230 OM1 American Women’s History

On this page you will find the Spring 2019 syllabus for this Hist 230 OM1 Course: American Women’s History. Enrolled students can also find it on the Blackboard page. That is where any calendar updates will be posted.

Spring 2019


Dr. Jamie L.H. Goodall

Stevenson telephone number: 443-334-2417
Stevenson email: jhagergoodall@stevenson.edu
Best times for phone contact:  M-F between 9am-4pm
Office location:  Learning Resource Center (LRC; Greenspring Library) Room 005
Office hours:  I will hold office hours in MAC S120 on the Owings Mills North (OMN) campus on Tuesdays/Thursdays between 12:30pm-1:45pm or by appointment.


Hist 230: American Women’s History
Section number: OM1
Credits: 3 (SEE Certified: Humanities)
Prerequisite(s):  A grade of C or better in ENG 152 or equivalent
Classroom Location:  Caves Sports & Wellness (CA) 244 on Owings Mills Campus (OM)
Scheduled Class Days and Time:  Mondays/Wednesdays 12:30pm-1:45pm

Course Description:  Examines the history of women in the United States from the time of the Native Americans in the pre-colonial era to the present. This course explores how women’s roles, status, image, and legal rights evolved due to social and economic change and as a result of the activism of reformers and writers.
Instructional Methods Used in this Course: (e.g., lecture, lab, group projects, guest speakers, fieldwork, or online components.)
Required and Recommended Texts, Manuals, and Supplies:  Include title, author, edition, city/state, publisher, date of publication, ISBN, and estimated costs.


CourseObjectives/Learning Outcomes:  

  1. Describe how texts and cultural artifacts provide testimony from the past that helps define gender and clarify its interaction with racial, ethnic, and status differences in American history since the pre-Colonial era.
  2. Identify individuals who have contributed to changing women’s status in American history.
  3. Identify and explain movements that have contributed to changing women’s status throughout American history.
  4. Analyze the role that American law has played in defining woman’s position in American society.
  5. Explain the role of American institutions in defining women’s roles in American society.
  6. Create a public history product addressing the topic of women’s history that is drawn from the history of Maryland, yet illustrates a national issue.

To determine if this course fulfills additional program or track outcomes, please see the department chair or program coordinator. 


Grading Scale:

Letter GradePercentage PointsQPA Points

Passing standards are dependent on the catalog year in which you entered the University. For further information, please look under “Academic Standing and Grading Information” in the “Academic Information” section of the relevant catalog at http://www.stevenson.edu/academics/catalog/.

Continuance and Progression Policies, if applicable: N/A


Reading Discussion/Participation: 25%
Primary Source Analysis: 15%
Film Review: 10%
Gender Studies Resource Database (GSRD) Midterm Project: 25%
Final Project: 25%


Reading Discussion GradeYou may notice that this is a relatively reading-heavy course. The purpose is to introduce you to the complex history of American women over the course of nearly 600 years. The readings are also designed to engage you with critical discussion in class. For each set of readings, I will have a series of discussion questions, but students will also be expected to come to class with at least 3 questions of their own. This will help to collaboratively foster discussion as opposed to having a one-way dialogue. If you are supremely uncomfortable with talking in class to the degree that it causes you crippling anxiety, I have an alternative option for you: You can ask questions and provide a critical overview of each day’s readings in a short write-up that you submit to me via email prior to the start of class. I can then incorporate your written work into the day’s discussion. You can then answer questions raised in class and send to me via email before the next class. This will be worth 25% of your final grade.

Primary Source AnalysisOnce during the term, you will critically engage with one of the critical activities of a historian: analysis of primary sources. A brief review of primary sources can be found under the “Miscellaneous Information” section of the syllabus as well as on our Blackboard Site. The assignment will be discussed in detail (with handouts) in class. You will be given one primary source document and one primary source image/cartoon to analyze using questions from the National Archives Primary Source Worksheets to help guide you. In the In-Class portion of the assignment, you will work with an assigned partner to complete the worksheet. Once the worksheet is completed, you will individuallywrite up a written version of your own analysis in short essay form, conducting a sort of comparison/contrast between the types of sources. You will submit both the worksheet and the write-up and will be assessed on both parts. We will practice analysis of primary sources together in class. The rubric is available on Blackboard. Please review it thoroughly. 

Film Review:You will choose one film from those listed under each week’s theme write a critical review of. Every student should have a different film, so you will need to email me your choice before writing the reflection to confirm it has not already been chosen. You are not confined the films listed, but you should run options by me first. You will take notes about the movie on a Film Study worksheet and use these notes—as well as the reading material, both primary and secondary, we’ve used in class—to compose a 2-3 page critical reflection paper. Each question on the worksheet can help you compose paragraphs, but you do not necessarily have to use them all. Using knowledge you’ve gained in the classroom as well as your notes from the movie, critique this film for things like historical accuracy, entertainment value, representation(s) of women, and impact. Some questions to consider would be: What would you change to improve the film/program? How much do these films/programs affect our ability to educate the public on history? How do we determine fact from fiction? How well does this film represent the variety of women’s identities/experiences? You might also choose to do a comparison/contrast of multiple films across a particular theme or time. This is worth 10% of your final grade.

Gender Studies Resource Database (GSRD) Midterm ProjectThis term we will be working together with Dr. Shelley E. Rose and graduate students in the Department of History at Cleveland State University to construct a database of digital projects, archives, or open access/open educational resources. While her class focuses on projects about women in Europe, we will be taking the lead in projects focused on American women. Each of you will be assigned a different digital resource to research, complete an entry worksheet (will be provided for you) on, write an original 150-word abstract for, tag with one or more appropriate tags from a provided Master List, and participate in a peer-review process before submitting a final version for Dr. Rose to approve. Students wishing to work directly with the Omeka platform may be given the opportunity to do so at the end of the semester, but it is not a requirement of the assignment. We will discuss the assignment in class further and you will be provided with guidelines, a rubric, and a sample entry.

Final Project:Worth 25% of your grade.

Option A: To get you used to working with both primary and secondary sources and introduce you to the field of public history, you will create a public history product on a topic of your choice related to the course themes. You can choose to write about women’s experiences during a particular time period, focus on a particular issue, compare experiences across race/class/ethnicity/etc., take a biographical approach, etc.

Options for the “visual” portion of the assignment may vary widely, but suggestions include: creating website; designing a museum exhibit, a video (think Drunk History or CrashCourse), a physical artifact (like posters, cross-stitching, sculpture, etc.), blogging, creating a game (card game, board game, video/computer game, etc.), or even create a “live-tweet” series of an event on Twitter! The options are nearly endless and I will show you sample projects from previous terms. A short explanatory/analytical write-up will accompany your “visual” product.

This project is designed to expose students to public history and to offer students the ability to explore an aspect of a particular historical moment. A key element of this project is using both primary AND secondary sources to create a compelling public history product. Students are STRONGLY encouraged to start their projects early and to discuss progress or problems with me. Depending on the nature of the project format chosen, it may be possible for students to work in pairs or small groups on this assignment. It is at the discretion of the instructor. We will discuss the project further in class and you will be provided with an assignment sheet/rubric.

Option B:This option is also designed to get you used to working with both primary and secondary sources. Rather than crafting a public history project, you will write a traditional 7-10 page academic paper on a topic of your choice related to the course themes. A key element of this project is using both primary AND secondary sources to create a compelling historical argument. This option does not allow for work in pairs/small groups. Details for this option will be provided in class and on an assignment sheet/rubric.



Late Work: Late work will be accepted, BUT is subject to losing up to 10% of the grade earned per day that it is late unless arrangements have been made with the instructor in advance.

Classroom and Studio Policies: Please do not rearrange furniture unless permission has been granted. Per the instructions of Conference Services, furniture must not be shifted between classrooms without express permission and return of said furniture. Please treat all objects within the classroom with care and respect.

ELECTRONIC DEVICES: Participation in the course means actively engaging during question sessions, contributing to group assignments, and being an active listener. Cell phones must be silenced or set to vibrate before the start of class. If you receive a call that might be related to an emergency, please quietly exit the classroom and return promptly. Texting, chatting online, or pursuing activities unrelated to the class will result in a 0 for your participation grade for the day.Please do not take pictures or video during my class without permission. If you do, I may ask you to leave and you will earn a 0 in participation for the day. You may use a laptop to take notes. However, it should not be used for anything else during class. If you are caught using social media, checking email, or completing assignments for another class, you may lose your participation points for the day.  

CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR: You are expected to be on time to class unless prior arrangements have been made. You should be in your seat and ready to begin class. You should not pack up and leave before class is over unless prior arrangements have been made. I ask that if you have made arrangements to arrive late/leave early that you do your best to prevent classroom disruption. Classroom discussion should be respectful to everyone and relevant to the topic we are discussing.Everyone is entitled to his/her opinion, but note that not all opinions are valid. Classroom discussion is meant to allow us to hear a variety of viewpoints. This can only happen if we respect each other and our differences.  

PREPARATION FOR CLASS: Students are expected to come to class with all assignments and reading completed. Students should be ready to actively engage in discussion, small group activities, and in-class assignments.      

Submission of Assignments or Projects: Unless otherwise instructed, all assignments must be submitted before the start of class. Digital submission of assignments via email is preferred, but it is your responsibility to ensure that any attachments can be opened prior to the start of class. Students must receive email confirmation from the instructor. All emails must come from the student’s official Stevenson email address. All written assignments (unless otherwise instructed) should follow this format:
-Times New Roman, size 12 Font
-1” margins all the way around
-Name, Date, and Class single-spaced in the header (not body)
-Double-spaced (with excess space removed between paragraphs)
-Citation style can be any format you’re most comfortable with (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian), but must be consistent and correct.


Each student is responsible for his or her own class attendance and regular attendance is expected. Every student is responsible for the material covered or the skills exercised during scheduled classes. Grades will be based on demonstrated achievement of the objectives of the course, not on attendance in class as such. Students who stop attending and fail to officially withdraw from a class will be given a grade of “FX” which calculates as an “F” in the GPA.

Course-Specific Attendance  

While grades are based on “demonstrated achievement of the objectives of the course,” attendance is a critical component of your Reading Discussion/Participation grade, which is worth 25% of your grade. Attendance is vital to your success in the class.


Diversity Statement 

Stevenson University commits itself to diversity as it relates to awareness, education, respect, and practice at every level of the organization. The University embraces people of all backgrounds, defined by, but not limited to, ethnicity, culture, race, gender, class, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, physical ability, learning styles, and political perspectives. The University believes its core values are strengthened when all of its members have voice and representation. The resulting inclusive organizational climate promotes the development of broad-minded members of the University who positively influence their local and global communities.

Standards of Academic Integrity

Stevenson University expects all members of its community to behave with integrity. Honesty and integrity provide the clearest path to knowledge, understanding, and truth – the highest goals of an academic institution. For students, integrity is fundamental to the development of intellect, character, and the personal and professional ethics that will govern their lives and shape their careers. Stevenson University embraces and operates in a manner consistent with the definitions and principles of Academic Integrity as set forth by the International Center for Academic Integrity.

Students are expected to model the values of academic integrity (honesty, trust, fairness, respect, responsibility, and courage) in all aspects of this course.  

Students will be asked to assent to and to uphold the University Honor Pledge: 

I pledge on my honor that I have neither given nor received unauthorized assistance on this assignment/exam.”

Suspected violations of the Academic Integrity Policy will be reported and investigated as outlined in the Policy Manual, Volume V.  


Disability Services 
Stevenson University will make reasonable accommodations for qualified students with documented disabilities. The Office of Disability Services (ODS) facilitates equal access for students who self-identify as having a disability and provide appropriate documentation. If you are a student with a disability who needs accommodations in this class, please contact the Director of Disability Services located in Garrison Hall South Room 138 or send an email to
ODS@stevenson.edu. Once accommodations are authorized by ODS, please provide me (your instructor) with your approved accommodations memo as soon as possible. Accommodations are not retroactive. 

This is the link to the University’s Office of Disability Services: http://www.stevenson.edu/academics/academic-resources/disability-support-services/

Academic Link
The John L. Stasiak Academic Link,
located on Owings Mills in the Center for Student Success (GHS 101), provides free tutoring for many classes. If you are having difficulty with or would benefit from discussing the material with an upper level peer, seek assistance early in the semester. Tutoring often makes a difference in a student’s grade. To view the tutoring schedule and sign up for an appointment, go to stevenson.go-redrock.com,visit the Link in person, or call 443-394-9300.


The SULibraryprovidesextensive electronicand printresources to supportyourcoursework.Research Guides and databasescan befound on the libraryhome page,as well asbrieftutorials to assist youin usingtheseresources. A professional librarian is always available to help you find the best information sources for your needs. For more information about library services, please visit: http://stevenson.libguides.com/stevensonlibrary    

Online Learning Resources

Atomic Learning (Hoonuit), available through Blackboard, is an online learning resource available to all Stevenson students that provides video tutorials for instruction on a wide variety of topics.  

The Wellness Center

Stress is a normal part of being a student. However, if personal, emotional, or physical concerns are interfering with your ability to be successful at Stevenson, please call the Wellness Center at 443-352-4200 to make an appointment. More information about the Wellness Center can be found at: http://www.stevenson.edu/student-life/health-wellness/


SU Goal No. 1: Intellectual Development (ID)

The SU graduate will use inquiry and analysis, critical and creative thinking, scientific reasoning, and quantitative skills to gather and evaluate evidence, to define and solve problems facing his or her communities, the nation, and the world, and to demonstrate an appreciation for the nature and value of the fine arts.

SU Goal No. 2: Communication (C)

The SU graduate will communicate logically, clearly, and precisely using written, oral, non-verbal, and electronic means to acquire, organize, present, and/or document ideas and information, reflecting an awareness of situation, audience, purpose, and diverse points of view. 

SU Goal No. 3: Self, Societies, and the Natural World (SSNW)

The SU graduate will consider self, others, diverse societies and cultures, and the physical and natural worlds, while engaging with world problems, both contemporary and enduring. 

SU Goal No. 4: Experiential Learning (EL)

The SU graduate will connect ideas and experiences from a variety of contexts, synthesizing and transferring learning to new, complex situations.

SU Goal No. 5: Career Readiness (CR)

The SU graduate will demonstrate personal direction, professional know-how, and discipline expertise in preparation for entry into the workplace or graduate studies.

SU Goal No. 6: Ethics in Practice (EIP)

The SU graduate will practice integrity in the academic enterprise, professional settings, and personal relationships.

For more information about the SU learning outcomes and goals, please see the Stevenson catalog. 


***Subject to Change***

Course Calendar:  

Week 1: Indigenous Women and European Encounters

Movies: The New World (2005); Maïna: An Unusual Love Story (2014)

M (1/28): Introduction

W (1/30): Kathleen M. Brown, “The Anglo-Algonquian Gender Frontier,” p. 26-42; Denise K. Lajimodiere, “American Indian Females and Stereotypes: Warriors, Leaders, Healers, Feminists; Not Drudges, Princesses, Prostitutes,” p. 104-109. 

Week 2: Women in Colonial and Revolutionary America (1600s-1780s)

Movies: Mary Silliman’s War (1994); The Witch (2016)

M (2/04): Terri L. Snyder, “Refiguring Women in Early American History,” p. 421-450

W (2/06): Susan Klepp, Revolutionary Conceptions, Intro, p. 1-19 and Conclusion, p. 272-286.

Week 3: Revolutionary Backlash—Women of the Early Republic (1789-1849)

Movies: American Experience: Dolley Madison (2010)

M (2/11): Catherine Allgor, Parlor Politics,Chapter 3: Washington Women in Public, p. 102-146 

W (2/13): Rosemarie Zagarri, Revolutionary Backlash, Intro, p. 1-10 and Chapter 5: A Democracy—For Whom? p. 148-180

Week 4: Gendered Experiences in the American Civil War & Reconstruction (1850s-1877)

Movies: Alex Haley’s Queen (1993); Beloved (1998)

M (2/18): Amy Dockser Marcus and Virginia Sánchez Korral, “The Adventures of Loreta Janeta Velázquez: Civil War Spy and Storyteller,” p. 59-71; Claudia Floyd, Maryland Women in the Civil War: Unionists, Rebels, Slaves and Spies Intro, Chapter 2, 5, & 6

W (2/20): Tera W. Hunter, To ‘Joy My Freedom, Chapter 2: Reconstruction and Meanings of Freedom, p. 21-43. PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS IN-CLASS PORTION

Week 5: Women of the Gilded Age (1870s-1900) and the Progressive Era (1890s-1920)

Movies: Songcatcher (2001); The African Queen (1951)

M (2/25): Judy Yung, “The Social Awakening of Chinese American Women as Reported in Chung Sai Yat Po, 1900-1911,” p. 259-270; Kathy Peiss, “Making Faces: The Cosmetics Industry and the Cultural Construction of Gender, 1890-1930,” p. 342-362. 

W (2/27): Evelyn Nakano Glenn, “From Servitude to Service Work: Historical Continuities in the Racial Division of Paid Reproductive Labor,” p. 427-455. PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS WRITE UP DUE

Week 6: The Jazz Age (1920s) & Great Depression (1929-1939)

Movies: Iron Jawed Angels (2004); Their Eyes Were Watching God (2005)

M (3/04): Sherrie Tucker, “Telling Performances: Jazz History Remembered and Remade by the Women in the Band,” p. 482-494; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, “In Politics to Stay: Black Women Leaders and Party Politics in the 1920s,” p. 289-302. 

W (3/06): Brenda J. Child, Holding our World Together, Chapter 4: Nett Lake: Wild Rice and the Great Depression. 

Week 7: Rosie the Riveter—Women of the 1940s

Movies: His Girl Friday (1940); All about Eve (1950)

M (3/11): Vicki L. Ruiz, “Luisa Moreno and Latina Labor Activism,” p. 175-192. 

W (3/13): Judith Bellafaire, “Native American Women Veterans,” The Women’s Memorial; Pamela D. Bennett, “Sometimes Freedom Wears a Woman’s Face: American Indian Women Veterans of World War II,” Chapter 2: Our War Too, Part II, p. 120-160.  GSRD DRAFT DUE FOR IN-CLASS PEER REVIEW

Week 8: Leave it to (June) Beaver: Women and the Baby Boom (1950s)

Movies: Carol (2015); Mona Lisa Smile (2003)

M (3/25): Linda Eisenmann, “A Time of Quiet Activism: Research, Practice, and Policy in American Women’s Higher Education, 1945-1965,” p. 1-17; Linda M. Perkins, “‘Bound to Them by a Common Sorrow’: African American Women, Higher Education, and Collective Advancement,” p. 721-747.

W (3/27): Maura I. Toro-Morn, “Gender, Class, Family, and Migration: Puerto Rican Women in Chicago,” p. 712-726. 

Week 9: The Sixties: The Birth of Second Wave Feminism

Movies: Hidden Figures (2016); Driving Miss Daisy (1989)

M (4/01): Tanisha C. Ford, “SNCC Women, Denim, and the Politics of Dress,” p. 625-658; GSRD FINAL VERSION DUE

W (4/03): Cynthia E. Harrison, “A ‘New Frontier’ for Women: The Public Policy of the Kennedy Administration,” p. 630-646; Kristin G. Esterberg, “From Accommodation to Liberation: A Social Movement Analysis of Lesbians in the Homophile Movement,” p. 424-433. 

Week 10: The “ME” Decade: Life and Liberation in the 1970s

Movies: No Más Bebés (2015); Thunderheart (1992)

M (4/08): Premilla Nadasen, “Expanding the Boundaries of the Women’s Movement: Black Feminism and the Struggle for Welfare Rights,” p. 271-301. 

W (4/10): Jenny Barker Devine, “The Answer to the Auxiliary Syndrome: Women Involved in Farm Economics (WIFE) and New Organizing Strategies for Farm Women, 1976-1985,” p. 117-141.

Week 11: The Age of Reagan: A Place for Women in the 1980s

Movies: The Women of Brewster Place (1980); 9 to 5 (1980)

M (4/15): Peter Kwong, “American Sweatshops 1980s Style Chinese Women Garment Workers,” p. 84-93. 

W (4/17): Sarah Banet-Weiser, “Fade to White: Racial Politics and the Troubled Reign of Vanessa Williams,” p. 167-184. 

Week 12: Clarissa Explains it All: Women, Tech, and the Dot Com Decade (1990s)

Movies: Finding Dawn (2006); GI Jane (1997)

M (4/22): Marian Blackwell-Stratton et al., “Smashing Icons: Disabled Women and the Disability and Women’s Movements,” p. 519-540; Watching Anita: Speaking Truth to Power.

W (4/24): Finish watching Anita: Speaking Truth to Power; Sarah Marshall, “Re-Examining Monica, Marcia, Tonya and Anita, the ‘Scandalous’ Women of the ’90s,” Splinter.

Week 13: Y2K and the War on Terror (2000-2010)

Movies: Out in the Night (2014); Real Women Have Curves (2002)

M (4/29): Rebecca Traister, Good and Mad, Intro p. xiv-xxxi, Part I: Eruption, p. 2-43

W (5/01): Traister, Good and Mad, Part II, Chapter 2 (The Circle of Entrapment: The Heavy Price of Rage) p. 62-81 and Chapter 4 (How Minority Rules) p. 113-133. 

Week 14: From Obama to Trump—Black Lives Matter, #MeToo, and the First Woman President

Movies: Tangerine (2015); Wind River (2017); The Pearl (2018)

M (5/06):Find one article (academic or popular—must be from a reputable web source) on EACH the following issues with a focus on women’s experiences: Black Lives Matter, #MeToo, LGBQT+ community, Women in Congress/Running for President, and White Privilege; Shannon Speed, “States of Violence: Indigenous Women Migrants in the Era of Neoliberal Multicriminalism,” p. 280-301.

W (5/09): Mini-Documentary viewings: “Eisha Love: A Trans Woman of Color in Chicago;” “Jennifer Chavez: A Trans Woman Working in a Male-Dominated Industry;” and “Kai Shappley: A Trans Girl Growing Up In Texas;”  LAST DAY TO SUBMIT FILM REVIEW

EXAM WEEK:May 13th-18th

Graded Assignments:  

Primary Source Analysis: February 27th

GSRD Write Up: April 1st

Film Review: Any time through May 9th

Final Project: TBA

Final exam date, time, and location: TBA

Course Bibliography:

Allgor, Catherine. Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a City and a Government. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2000. 

Barker Devine, Jenny. “The Answer to the Auxiliary Syndrome: Women Involved in Farm Economics (WIFE) and New Organizing Strategies for Farm Women, 1976-1985.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 30, no. 3 (2009): 117-141. 

Barr, Julianna. “Diplomatic Ritual in the ‘Land of the Tejas.’” In Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Bellafaire, Judith. “Native American Women’s Veterans.” The Women’s Memorial, accessed January 27, 2019. https://www.womensmemorial.org/native-american-women-veterans

Bennett, Pamela D. “Sometimes Freedom Wears a Woman’s Face: American Indian Women Veterans of World War II.” PhD Diss., The University of Arizona, 2012.  

Brown, Kathleen M. “The Anglo-Algonquin Gender Frontier.” In Negotiators of Change: Historical Perspectives on Native American Women edited by Nancy Shoemaker. New York, NY: Routledge, 1995. https://bit.ly/2RV1Ztv

Ford, Tanisha C. “SNCC Women, Denim, and the Politics of Dress.” The Journal of Southern History 79, no. 3 (2013): 625-658. 

Child, Brenda J. Holding Our World Together: Ojibwe Women and the Survival of Community. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2013. 

Cohen, Cathy C. et al., eds. Women Transforming Politics: An Alternative Reader. New York, NY: NYU Press, 1997. 

Eisenmann, Linda. “A Time of Quiet Activism: Research, Practice, and Policy in American Women’s Higher Education, 1945-1965.” History of Education Quarterly 45, no. 1 (2005): 1-17. 

Esterberg, Kristin G. “From Accommodation to Liberation: A Social Movement Analysis of Lesbians in the Homophile Movement.” Gender and Society 8, no. 3 (1994): 424-443. 

Floyd, Claudia. Maryland Women in the Civil War: Unionists, Rebels, Slaves and Spies

Harrison, Cynthia E. “A ‘New Frontier’ for Women: The Public Policy of the Kennedy Administration.” The Journal of American History 67, no. 3 (1980): 630-646. 

Hunter, Tera W. To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors after the Civil War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997. 

Klepp, Susan E. Revolutionary Conceptions: Women, Fertility, and Family Limitation in America, 1760-1820. Chapel Hill, NC: The Univeristy of North Carolina Press, 2009. 

Lajimodiere, Denise K. “American Indian Females and Stereotypes: Warriors, Leaders, Healers, Feminists; Not Drudges, Princesses, Prostitutes.” Multicultural Perspectives 15, no. 2 (2013): 104-109.

Marshall, Sarah. “Re-Examining Monica, Marcia, Tonya and Anita, the ‘Scandalous’ Women of the ’90s.” Splinter, April 19, 2016. Accessed January 27, 2019. https://splinternews.com/re-examining-monica-marcia-tonya-and-anita-the-scand-1793856264

Nadasen, Premilla. “Expanding the Boundaries of the Women’s Movement: Black Feminism and the Struggle for Welfare Rights.” Feminist Studies 28, no. 2 (2002): 271-301. 

Perkins, Linda M. “‘Bound to Them by a Common Sorrow’: African American Women, Higher Education, and Collective Advancement.” The Journal of African American History100, no. 4 (2015): 721-747.

Pettit, Becky and Stephanie Ewert. “Employment Gains and Wage Declines: The Erosion of Black Women’s Relative Wages since 1980.” Demography 46, no. 3 (2009): 469-492.

Ruiz, Vicki L. and Ellen Carol DuBois, eds. Unequal Sisters: An Inclusive Reader in U.S. Women’s History. New York, NY: Routledge, 1990.

Ruiz, Vicki L. and Virginia Sánchez Korrol, eds. Latina Legacies: Identity, Biography, and Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 

Snyder, Terri L. “Refiguring Women in Early American History.” The William and Mary Quarterly 69, no. 3 (2012): 421-450.

Speed, Shannon. “States of Violence: Indigenous Women Migrants in the Era of Neoliberal Multicriminalism,” Critique of Anthropology 36, no. 3 (2016): 280-301. 

Toro-Morn, Maura I. “Gender, Class, Family, and Migration: Puerto Rican Women in Chicago.” Gender and Society 9, no. 6 (1995): 712-726.

Traister, Rebecca. Good and Mad: The Revolutionary Power of Women’s Anger. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2018.

Course Videos:

 “Eisha Love: A Trans Woman of Color in Chicago.” YouTube Video, 15:52. Published by “them,” October 18, 2018. Accessed January 27, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tza8fQ4izgo.

“Jennifer Chavez: A Trans Woman Working in a Male-Dominated Industry.” YouTube Video, 10:12. Published by “them,” October 25, 2018. Accessed January 27, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qo7zUv7p7xk

“Kai Shappley: A Trans Girl Growing Up In Texas.” YouTube Video, 18:03. Published by “them,” October 10, 2018. Accessed January 27, 2019.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cuIkLNsRtas.